Leptospirosis is found worldwide in both wild and domestic animals, but in small-animal practice, we are most concerned with this disease in our canine patients. The number of cases has been increasing worldwide, this may be caused by increase urbanization and contact with wildlife hosts, such as raccoons, skunks, opposums, and rodents. In addition we know that globally, leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease. As a result, small-animal practitioners around the world are becoming more vigilant about this infection.
Leptospirosis can be difficult to diagnose. Presenting signs are often common and nonspecific, including lethargy, fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD). Early diagnosis improves patient outcome.